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Cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic derived from Streptomyces fulvissius; used as an insecticide and nematocide.
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Seven compounds (valinomycin, berberine chloride, colchicine, carbaryl, diethylstilbestrol, rotenone and [MPP.sup.+]) caused a significant decrease in neurite area at concentrations that did not affect viability (Fig.
Omar, "Incorporation of surface plasmon resonance with novel valinomycin doped chitosan-graphene oxide thin film for sensing potassium ion," Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol.
Albeit there are a few patch-clamp studies on granulocytes which provide valuable information, they can be associated with possible limitations as electrophysical measurements in neutrophils are difficult by nature, for example, description of NADPH oxidase of other cells (eosinophils [16, 19, 24], the granulocytic cell line HL-60 [21, 22], or macrophages [15]), application of intracellular milieu changing ionophores (e.g., valinomycin, gramicidin, and amphotericin) [11, 18, 23], or the use of enucleated neutrophils [17, 20].
As indicated, growth media were supplemented with menadione, valinomycin, or NaCl from appropriate stocks in DMSO (menadione) or water (valinomycin, NaCl).
Halestrap, "The regulation of the oxidation of fatty acids and other substrates in rat heart mitochondria by changes in the matrix volume induced by osmotic strength, valinomycin and [Ca.sup.2+]," The Biochemical Journal, vol.
Cells were then washed twice in PBS, and the calibration curve samples were resuspended in valinomycin and nigericin with pH calibration buffers of pH 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5 for 5 min before analysis, according to the manufacturer's protocol.
(79) Primary mouse HSCs were cultured in the presence or absence of two chemical uncouplers--carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) or valinomycin. Either of these uncouplers decreased the ATP content per cell to 970% of that of untreated cells.
Cells treated with 1 [micro]l Valinomycin (1mg/ml), a [K.sup.+] ionophore, were used as a positive control for decreased mitochondrial membrane potential.
Macrocyclic complexes have received special attention because of their presence in many important biological systems, for example, metalloporphyrins (hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, chlorophylls), corrins (vitamin B12), antibiotics (valinomycin, nonactin), and so forth.
Bangham, "Potassium permeability of single compartment liposomes with and without valinomycin," Biomembranes, vol.
To further elucidate the relationship between mitochondria and cell differentiation, the effects of impairment of mitochondrial function and activity on myogenic cells have been investigated using antimycin [24], azide [24-27], chloramphenicol [4,6-9], carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone carbonyl (CCCP) [24], cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP) [6], ethidium bromide (EtBr) [1-3, 24], myxothiazol [7], rhodamine 6G [28], rifampicin [1], rotenone [7], oligomycin [6, 7, 26], tetracycline [5], and valinomycin [24].
(2008) determined another actinomycete peptide antibiotic, valinomycin isolated from Streptomyces sp.